`De architect van
kasteel Arnsberg`

Beeldhouwer Willem van Tetrode

Netherlandish sculptors in sixteenth-century northern Germany *

Anna Jolly

It has often been said that by the mid-sixteenth century a journey to Italy had become a fashionable necessity for any aspiring young artist from northern Europe. Sculptors like Glambologna, Johan Gregor van der Schardt, Hubert Gerhard or Adriaen de Vries all traveled to ltaly to study the works of antiquity and the Renaissance, joining one of the prominent workshops in Florence, Rome or Venice. Later they entered the networks of royal and imperial patronae in ltaly and southern Germany, which promised lucrative commissions or employment at court. Most of these artists worked in what is perhaps the most courtly medium of sculpture, bronze.'

Unknown engraver, View of Arnsberg with the castle and Wedinghausen monastery, from Franz Hogenberg and Georg Braun, Civitates orbis terrarum, Cologne 1572- 1617, engraving, ca. 1588. Amsterdam, University Librarv, Map Room

Apart from this elite, there was another group of Netherlandish sculptors, indeed a large number of them, who migrated to northern European countries, and there entered a different network of princely patronage.

Ironically, it was the ltallan writer Lodovico Guicciardini, who recorded in his Descrittione di tutti i paesi Bassi first published in 1567, that many able sculptors and architects left the Netherlands to work for high salaries at the courts of princes in various northern European states, including Germany and Scandinavia.

Some of them were already masters when they left, others remained on the level of assistants and did not attract interest from later scholars beyond a mention in Thieme-Becker's Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Künstler. Yet, there are some important artists among them who have fallen between the stools of nationally oriented scholarship.

Largely ignored by scholars in their country of origin because of their emigration, they were most frequently studied by local historians in the area where they had worked and subsumed under misleading stylistic umbrella terms like "Weserrenaissance." But they were rarely portrayed in the larger context of artistic and historical developments in Europe. Who were these artists, who went not to ltaly but to Germany or Scandinavia? Were they unfashionable in

* This text is based on a paper originally presented at a symposium on Adriaen de Vries and sixteenth-century Netherlandish sculpture organized by the Dutch Postgraduate School for Art History at the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, in February 1999.

I am most grateful to Frits Scholten and Ilja Veldman for their generous support and advice during my time as visiting scholar in Amsterdam. My sincere thanks also go to the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen and the Nordrhein-Westfälische Akademie der Wissenschaften for funding this project with a Casimir-Ziegler scholarship. 1 For a recent discussion of sculptors' migration to ltaly see F. Scholten et al, exhib. cat. Adriaen de Vries 1556-1626, Amsterdam (Rijksmuseum), Stockholm (Nationalmuseum) & Los Angeles (j. Paul Gettv Museum) 1998-2000,

pp. 13-16. 2 L. Guicciardini, Descrittioize di tutti paesi Bassi, 3rd cd., Antwerp 1588, P. 132: "Et di qui poi si spargono maestri per l'Inghilterra, per tutta l'Alamagna, & specialmente per la Danimarca, per la Suetia, per la Norvegia, per la Pollonia, & per altri paesi Settetrionali, insino per la Moscovia, senza parlare di quelli che vano per la Francia, per la Spagna & per il

Portogallo, il piu delle volte chiamati con gran' provvissione da Principi, da Republiche, & da altri Potentati, cosa non meno maravigliesa che honorata" ("And from here masters then spread to England, to the whole of Germany, and especially to Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Poland and to ether northern countries, even as far as Moscow, not mentioning these who went to France,

Spain and Portugal, and most were summoned with great salaries bv princes, republics and bv ether ruiers, a matter no less marvellous tha n honorable"). 3 Important earlier contributions are E. Neurdenburg, "Hendrick de Keyser Beeldhouwer," Oudheidkundigjaarboek I934, PP. 15-23, R. Hedicke, Cornelis Floris und die Florisdekoration, vols., Berlin '9 I 3, VOI. 1, pt. 2: "@'erbreitung des Floris Stils," pp. I2-1-69, H. Appel, Niederrheinische Skulptur von 1560 bis 1620 und ihre Beziehti@"en zu den Niederlanden, Emsdetten 1934,

and J. Soenke, "Triumph des Manierismus in Stadthagen," in 0. Bernstorf and J. Soenke, Niederländische Kunst in Stadthagen (Schaumburger Stüdien 6), Bückeburg i964, PP. 35-80. A useful survey of emigrant artists in Europe, including these of Netherlandish origin in Germany, is G. Troescher, Kunst- und Künstleriveinderiingepi in mitteleuropa 800-i800, 2 vols., Baden-Baden 1953 - 1954

Ruïne van slot Arnsberg
Van Tetrode in Cologne
It is known from the inscription on a print designed by Adriaen de Weerdt af ter two sculptures of Mercury and Minerva by Willem Danielsz. van Tetrode that the latter was working as an architect for the elector and archbishop, Salentin von Isenburg, in 1575 (fig. 13) . Van Tetrode is an exceptional case in this context, since he had spent part of his career in ltaly and also worked in bronze. He was one of the few Netherlandish sculptors to return to his country in the 1560`s, but he left the Netherlands again, after
Tetrode died as a victim of the plague which hit the area in 1580 and adds that he had built Arnsberg Castle. Gebhard von Truchsess converted to Protestantism in 1582, and tried to enforce the Reformation in his territory. The pope and the emperor reacted by dismissing him from his positions as archbishop and elector. In the following years, the castle of Arnsberg served von Truchsess as a base during an armed conflict, the socalled "Cologne War," against his designated successor and opponent Duke Ernst of Bavaria which ended with Gebhard's expulsion from the territory.50
Ruïne van slot Arnsberg
The castle of Arnsberg was partly damaged during this period and finally destroyed in the eighteenth century. Another group of sculptures by van Tetrode dating from his Cologne period, Venus, Jupiter and Mercury, were originally in the house of the wealthy Cologne Ratsherr and wine-merchant Peter Terlan von Lennep (d. 1577) on the Heumarkt in the center of Cologne. These sculptures were reproduced in another print of 1574, also after a design by Adriaen de Weerdt, which records their location in the inscription beneath the figure of jupiter (fig. 16).

51 It cannot be determined from the print whether the original figures were bronze statuettes or other decorative sculptures of interior architecture. The print apparently served as a model for some figures on a chimney-piece that originally stood in Horst Castle near Gelsenkirchen, a castle belonging to Salentin von Isenburg's marshal Rütger von der Horst who held a highly influential political position at the elector's court.;" 50 E.W. Zeeden, Hegemonialkriege und Glaubenskämpfè 1556-1648 (Propyläen Geschichte Europas 2),

Binnenplaats slot Arnsberg
Frankfurt, Berlin & Vienna 1975 P. 231 51 For de Weerdt in Cologne see Veldman, op. cit. (note 41), PP. 3741, and for the prints after van Tetrode's works in Cologne see Nijstad, op. cit. (note 46), pp. 270-71, and D. de Hoop Scheffer (ed.), Hollstein's Duitch and Flemish etchings, engravings and woodcuts, ca. 1450-1700, in progress, Amsterdam 1949, vel. 51, Rotterdam 1998, P. 234. 52 This chimney-piece is todav at Schloss Hugenpoet in Essen~Kettwig, see P. Clemen (ed.),

Die Kunstdenkmäler der Stadt und des Kreises Düsseldorf Düsseldorf 1894, PP. 123-24. An earlier observation of the relationship between print and chimney-piece by Appel, op. cit. (note 3), P. 34, has been overlooked in recent scholarship. For the history of Horst Castle and its owners see Klapheck, op. cit. (note 41), and K. Gonska, Dat Huess zor Horst: die Adelsfamilie von der Horst im Emscherbruch und ihre Erben im 16. und 17. Jahrhundert (Materialien zur Kunst- und Kulturgeschichte in Nord- iind Westdeutschland 10), Marburg 1994.

Schloss Horst

Shortly before laying down his office, Salentin had elevated Rütger to the position of Stadholder of Recklinghausen and had conferred large land holdings to him. The chimney-piece from Horst is decorated with a frieze representing scenes from the Trojan War after a set of prints from the circle of Raimondi (fig.17). In shallow niches at the corners and in the middle of the central frieze are three single figures, Venus, jupiter and Mercury (figs. 18a-c), which closely follow the print by de Weerdt.

lt is known that Rütger von der Horst owned a large print collection and lent reproductions to the artists working on chimney-pieces for his castle.53 The sculptor of this chimney-piece has not been identified yet. It is dated 1578, well after the building of Horst Castle had been completed. Furthermore, it shows a remarkable quality, in the carving of the figurative reliefs and ornamental details, which sets it apart from two earlier chimney-pieces from the same castle that were made by Heinrich and Wilhelm Vernucken

(Schloß horst, erbaut zwischen 1554 und 1572, ist das bedeutendste renaissanceschloß des nordwest- deutschen raumes, und beeinflusste den renaissance- zeitlichen baustil im gesamten niederländisch/ niederrheinischen raum maßgeblich. )

Oude poort slot Horst

during the 1560s. Wilhelm had left Horst in 1577 to work for Duke Wilhelm iv in Kassel. It is conceivable, therefore, that Van Tetrode was in some way involved in the design of the chimney-piece in his position as architect to Salentin von Isenburg. A relief showing the figure of Marcus Curtius on horseback at the center top of the same chimnev (fig. 19) closely follows another sculpture design possibly by van Tetrode, which is known from a bronze statuette of a Warrior on horseback in the J. Paul Getty Museum in Los Angeles (fig. 20).

54 The statuette can be linked stvlisticallv to other bronze statuettes attributed to Van Tetrode, such as the figure of Hercules pomarius or the Striding warrior (both Rijksmuseum Amsterdam). The composition of the Warrior on horseback is also echoed in one of Hendrick Goltzius's engravings in his series of Roman heroes of ca. 1586. Goitzius is known to have followed van Tetrode's inventions more than once.

55 A bronze or plaster cast of the statuette may have served as a model for the figure on the chimney-piece, which in the iconographical context of civic virtue on the chimney acquired its specific identity as a Marcus Curtius.Their close interrelation suggests that the design of the Warrior on horseback should be dated to Van Tetrode's Cologne period, that is to say after 1574 and before 1578. The above-mentioned print after Van Tetrode's figures of Venus, Jupiter and Mercury was apparently also known to Adriaen de Vries. The pose of de Vries's large figure of Neptune on the Neptune fountain for King Christian IV of Denmark, completed in Prague in 1617, is similar to that of jupiter on the print, particularlv regardin,- the energetic forward thrust of their movement. Indeed, de Vries's working from a print would explain the frontal view of his Neptune, in contrast to the figura serpentinata of Giambologna's Neptune on his fountain in Bologna. 56 lt has recently been suggested, that De Vries was Van Tetrode's pupil, and this may account for his predilection for Van Tetrode's invention.

Zie ook:



Schloß Horst ist das herausragendste Beispiel für den niederländischen Manierismus, einer regional gefärbten Spielart der Renaissance, in Westfalen. Hinsichtlich seiner Bauskulptur und -ornamentik ist die zwischen 1556 und 1573 errichtete Anlage sogar von weit überregionaler Bedeutung.